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Perilla (Perilla frutescens)

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Also listed as: Perilla frutescens
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Attribution

Related Terms
  • L-perillyl alcohol, alpha-linolenic acid, ao shiso, apigenin, baisu, ban tulsi (Bengali), beefsteak plant, bhanjira (Hindi), caffeic acid, Chinese basil, chi-ssu (Chinese), common perilla, d-limonene, dihydroperillic acid, egoma (Japanese), hung-sha-yao (Chinese), ji soo, kkaennip namul (Korean), Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), limonene, luteolin, m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, methyl caffeate, monoterpene, monoterpene perillyl alcohol, perilla seed oil, perilla seed perillaldehyde, perilla oil, perillic acid, perilloside A, perilloside C, perillyl alcohol, Perilla frutescens, purple mint, purple perilla, rattlesnake weed, red perilla, rosmarinic acid, trans-caffeic acid, shiso (Japanese), shisonoha (Japanese, red leaved form), summer coleus, trans-carveol, trans-m-coumaric acid, ts'ao-t'ou (Chinese), tsu-shih ts'ao (Chinese), tzu ssu (Chinese), wild basil, wild coleus, wild red basil, yeh-ssu (Chinese), zisu.

Background
  • Perilla is a traditional crop of China, India, Japan, Korea, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In North America, it is occasionally called by its Japanese name, shiso. In North America, it is also known as purple mint, Chinese basil, or wild coleus. Perilla seed oil is used for cooking, as a drying oil, and as a fuel. Perilla seed oil is high in the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid.
  • Asian practitioners prescribe perilla for respiratory afflictions and prevention, pregnancy concerns, seafood poisoning, and "incorrect energy balance."
  • Some evidence is available for the use of perilla oil for reduction in asthma symptoms, as well as use of perilla extract for seasonal allergies. More clinical evidence is required before recommendations can be made for any clinical usage of perilla.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Preliminary evidence suggests some benefit of perilla extract for seasonal allergies. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
C


Preliminary evidence suggests there is no benefit of perilla oil over soybean oil for aphthous stomatitis prevention. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
C


Preliminary evidence suggests some benefit of perilla oil for symptoms of asthma. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), atopic dermatitis, blood pressure control (lowering), brain function improvement, cancer, cardiovascular disease, colds, constipation, cough, Crohn's disease, dental caries (prevention), depression, diabetes, fever, hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol), hypertriglyceridemia (high levels of triglycerides or fatty acid compounds in the blood), gastrointestinal disorders, immunomodulation, leukemia, lung conditions, memory, nausea and vomiting, obesity, osteoporosis, poisoning (seafood), pregnancy (morning sickness), pregnancy problems, respiratory tract infections, rosacea (skin condition characterized by red, oily skin and acne), schizophrenia, sedative, stress.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for perilla. Traditionally, a tea (boiling water to 1/4 cup dry herb, steep 10 to 15 minutes), consumed throughout the day has been used for colds, flu, sore throat, and congestion. For asthma, perilla seed oil for four weeks has been used. For seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, Perilla frutescens enriched with rosmarinic acid (200 milligrams or 50 milligrams) for three weeks has been used. Perilla has also been boiled and the steam has been inhaled to clear the sinuses.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for perilla in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to perilla. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Perilla frutescens has been documented.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Perilla used in recommended doses is considered to be safe and well tolerated. In one study, patients reported no adverse events and no significant abnormalities were detected in routine blood tests. However, occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Perilla frutescens has been documented.
  • Use commercial perilla oil cautiously in patients with cancer, due to a mutagen formed in the oil, from omega-3 fatty acids.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Perilla is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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